BIO 385 Invertebrate Zoology
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Invertebrate Diversity
The Lophophorate Phyla

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Phylum Bryozoa (aka Ectoprocta) Moss Animals


  • Have lophophore (ciliated O- or U-shaped ridge around mouth)
  • Three-part body plan with U-shaped gut
  • Individuals tiny (<1 mm) but form colonies (via budding)
  • Colonies have variety of forms (encrusting, branched, etc.)
  • Each individual housed in a secreted casing (Cystid)
  • Lophophore forms tentacles that can be protruded or retracted
  • Mostly marine, some fresh-water
>Pectinatella Zooid
Spiral Bryozoan, Bugula sp., portion of colony; stained whole-mount.
>Pectinatella Zooid
Freshwater bryozoan, Pectinatella magnifica, individual zooid; stained whole-mount, 40x
See also labeled photo
Lacycrust Bryozoan Colony
Lacy-crust Bryozoan colony, Membranipora villosa; CA
Unidentified bryozoan colonies
Eurystomella Bryozoan Colony
Derby Hat Bryozoan colony, Eurystomella bilabiata; CA
Microporella Bryozoan Colony
Encrusting Bryozoan colony, Microporella sp.?; La Jolla, CA
Branching Bryozoan Colony
Unidentified Branching Bryozoan colony; La Jolla, CA
Stick Bryozoan Colony
Stick Bryozoan colony, Thalamoporella californica; La Jolla, CA
Fossil Bryozoan Colony
Branching Bryozoan Fossil; Ordovician Period, KY

Phylum Brachiopoda Lamp Shells


  • Superficially Mollusc-like, with 2-valve shell
  • One valve is dorsal, one ventral (mollusc valves are right and left)
  • Have lophophore (ciliated O- or U-shaped ridge around mouth)
  • Three-part body plan with U-shaped gut
  • Usually with stalk (pedicle) to attach to substrate
  • Marine, benthic
Lamp Shells, Lingula sp., preserved specimens
See also labeled photo
Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratella sp., preserved specimens
See also labeled photo
Brachiopod Fossils
Brachiopod Fossils; Ordovician, KY
Brachiopods of the Naco Formation; Pennsylvanian Period, near Payson, AZ

Phylum Phoronida Horseshoe Worms


  • Tube-dwelling worm-like animals
  • U-shaped Lophophore is retractible
  • Typically around 12 cm long
  • Hemoglobin in blood imparts red color
  • 14 species, all are marine
Phoronid Worm
Phoronid Worm, Phoronis psammophila, partly extruded from its tube
Phoronid Worm 2
Phoronid Worm, Phoronis psammophila
Tentaculite Fossil, a possible stem-phoronid; Devonian Period, NY
This page last updated 21 December 2016 by Udo M. Savalli ()
Images and text Udo M. Savalli. All rights reserved.