BIO 113 Dinosaurs
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Lab 11
The Origin of Birds

Labeled skeletons of a Rock Pigeon, Chicken and other birds

Pigeon Skeleton Labeled Chicken Skeleton Labeled Kingfisher Skeleton Labeled Puffin Skeleton Labeled

Feather Structure and Feather Types

Feathers Labeled

Compare the Skeleton of Archaeopteryx (below) with the skeletons of various archosaurs, including an alligator, several dinosaurs, the extinct bird Confuciusornis (below) and modern birds

Archaeopteryx
Below: a photograph of the actual "Thermopolis specimen" of Archaeopteryx (at the Wyoming Dinosaur Center)
Archaeopteryx 2

A fossil cast of the primitive mesozoic bird Confuciusornis (female)

Confuciusornis

Diversity of Feathered Theropod Dinosaurs

Feathered dinos
Above: various theropod dinosaurs either known to have feathers based on fossil evidence or closely related to feathered species, all depicted at approximately the same scale.
* indicates model is painted in probable life colors.

Below: A phylogeny of theropod dinosaurs known to have feathers (dinosaurs not shown to scale)
Feathered dinosaur phylogeny

Diversity of Extinct Birds

Birds of the Mesozoic Era:

extinct birds

Large, flightless birds of the Cenozoic Era:

cenozoic birds
This page last updated 26 November 2016 by Udo M. Savalli ()
Images and text Udo M. Savalli. All rights reserved.